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GLOSSARY

 

I.    Major Terms & Concepts relevant to the Return of the House of Joseph

 

II.   An outline explaining the Orthodox Shabbat observance

 

III.  Glossary and Vocabulary Helps

MAJOR TERMS AND CONCEPTS:

Y'SHUA (YESH-OO-AH) - the Hebrew name for Jesus, which means SALVATION.

MOSHIAH (MESSIAH) - the Hebrew word for the Greek christos, which means ANOINTED ONE.

NAMES OF GOD

HASHEM (HAH-SHEM) - the substitute for the Holy & Divine Name of God (YKVH) which was pronounced only in the Jerusalem Temple and only by the holy priests in the Temple. Today, HASHEM is used by the Orthodox Jewish community when referring to Him in casual conversation or when casually reading Scripture. The literal meaning of HASHEM in Hebrew is appropriately, THE NAME. It refers to the Creator in His attribute of Divine MERCY based on the revelations given to Moshe, associated with this name also called the 13 Attributes of Mercy, which begin "HASHEM HASHEM"

ADONAI (AH-DOE-NAI) - The name used by the Orthodox Jewish community when praying directly to God or when reading the weekly Torah portion in the synagogue on Shabbat (the Sabbath). It means SUPREME MASTER and when used only in the context of prayer and Torah reading refers only to the Divine Creator. When this name is read in the Torah portion in an Orthodox synagogue it is immediately sanctified (made holy) with the entire congregation singing in a chorus at each mention "BARUCH HU U'VARUCH SH'MO" (Blessed is He and Blessed is His Name." ADONAI should not be confused with ADONI (AH-DOE-NEE) or ADON (AH-DON), which simply means "sir", "master" or "lord" in the generic sense.

YKVH - (Note: the K appears in the place of an H.) Pronounced either HASHEM or ADONAI as above. Since the vowel pointing of these Hebrew letters (Yod and Hey and Vov and Hey) is uncertain, and other restrictions were placed on the utterance of the HOLY NAME limiting it to being spoken in a HOLY PLACE by HOLY PRIESTS, it is at this time not appropriate to pronounce "the name by its letters" in Orthodox circles. Doing so is considered making the name "common" or using it in vain. Opinions vary about the meaning of the "name by its letters", but the majority view it as pertaining to the past, present and future tenses of the Hebrew verb "to be." Or in other words the DIVINE LORD OVER ALL CREATION AND TIME.

ELOHIM (EL-O-HEEM) - Commonly translated "God", this Divine Name refers to HASHEM in His attribute of JUDGMENT or in some cases JUDGMENT TEMPERED WITH MERCY. While it appears to be a plural noun, it always uses a singular verb when referring to HASHEM, meaning that the noun is SINGULAR.

BERESHIT (BEH-RAH-SHYT) - In the beginning. This is the first word of the Torah in Genesis 1:1, which contains many hidden words and concepts including the mystical teaching that the Shabbat was created before heaven and earth! Permutations of the word reflect the truths that the world was created in six days, the fear or reverence of the Shabbat, Shabbat as the "concealed source, hidden root and crown of Creation."

BREAD OF SHAME - Gifts should be shared with someone who is not a party to the gift, otherwise, one accumulates SHAME associated with the gift. The Torah provides for the REMEDY OF THE BREAD OF SHAME through the first fruits, tithes to Levites and the poor and offerings.

RETURN OF THE HOUSE OF JOSEPH - As seen on the map on the front cover, the inheritance of the descendants of Joseph's children overlaps with the proposed Palestinian state in the region of the Shomron known as the West Bank. The major ideas associated with the Return of the House of Joseph include this as a BIBLICAL alternative to a Palestinian state foretold by many prophecies in the Torah and the Tanakh as well as obscure Jewish writings in the context of the ongoing conflict between the House of Jacob and the House of Esau. But before the Return can occur, the descendants of Joseph must first be re-directed toward the observance of the Torah (starting with the observance of Shabbat), and prepared to unite with their Jewish brethren. Parallel to the Return then is the reconciliation of the centuries old enmity and vexation between the Northern and Southern monarchies led by descendants of Joseph and Judah respectively, as Hashem turns the hearts of the children of Joseph to their father and the children of Judah to their father bringing "Jews" and "Joes" together.

THE TWO KINGDOMS OF ISRAEL:

HOUSE OF ISRAEL - Known in biblical times as the Northern Kingdom, this consists TODAY of the ASSIMILATION of all of the descendants of Israel who stood before Hashem at Mount Sinai but whose generations later departed from the terms of the covenant. They have distant but nevertheless physical roots in Israel and spiritual reconciliation with Hashem through the "renewed covenant" administered by Y'shua. In biblical times, the House of Israel was distinct was from the House of Judah and included the so-called 10 northern tribes known as Reuben, Gad, Issachar, Zebulon, Naphtali, Asher, Dan, Manasseh, Ephraim and part of Benjamin, under the leadership of the House of Joseph, the stick of Joseph-Ephraim. The prophet Jeremiah (Chapter 30) refers to these as those hailing from both Judah and Israel but who are "sown ASSIMILATED with the seed of man and the seed of beast."

HOUSE OF JUDAH - Known in biblical times as the Southern Kingdom, this consists TODAY of the TORAH FAITHFUL JEWISH COMMUNITY who have never intermarried or otherwise assimilated and perhaps those JEWS who may not be Torah faithful but nevertheless have never intermarried or assimilated. At least the Torah observant among them would be excluded from the terms of the renewed covenant as outlined in Jeremiah 31 since they are not of the "House of Judah sown with the seed of man or beast and already have the Torah written on the heart." They consisted in biblical times of the amalgamation of Judah, Simeon, the Levites (who were loyal to Jerusalem and the Temple and the other part of Benjamin).

THE JUDGMENTS OF HOSEA:

JEZREEL (lit. YIZRA'EL) . This was the first son in the marriage between Hosea and his harlot wife, Gomer. The literal meaning in Hebrew is "the SEED" (ZARA) God (EL) will sow or scatter. It is also a play on the name, ISRAEL. In other words, Hashem changed the name of the Northern Kingdom to reflect their judgment of being scattered among the nations. The purpose for this scattering is explained in the remedy of the Bread of Shame so that through the ASSIMILATION of a part of Israel, the nations can be given a "piece" of Hashem's gifts: Shabbat, Torah and Eretz Yisrael.

LO-RUHAMAH (without mercy). This is the second child of Hosea and Gomer. Her birth reflects the judgment against the Northern Kingdom that Hashem would remove the covenant He had made with the Northern Kingdom but He would not do so with the Southern Kingdom even though they strayed even further from the Covenant than did Israel! (See Hosea 1:7)

LO-AMI (not my people). This is the third child of Hosea and Gomer. Even though Hashem spoke to Hosea through his birth that He was no longer God to the Northern Kingdom of Israel (He had given them a get or divorce) and they were no longer His people, the prophet goes on to state that IN THE LAST DAYS, the descendants of these same people would return to the very place that these judgments were being pronounced and would again be in the family of Hashem.

THE GOSPEL . In its simplest analogy, the mission and message of Y'shua is defined as regathering the Assimilation (scattered seed), restoring Hashem's covenant of Mercy with them and bringing them back first into the family of Israel and ultimately to Eretz Yisrael. This is consistent with the prophecies written about Y'shua in the Renewed Testament, before his birth and at his infancy and as indicated by the BUZZ WORDS, "regather the lost sheep", "mercy" and "My People." It also establishes an undisputed continuity between the message of the prophets known as "THE WORD OF HASHEM" and the Renewed Testament mission.

Simply stated the WORD OF HASHEM, beginning with Hosea was that Hashem would first SCATTER but then REGATHER, Israel in part. In the process, whosoever will among the Gentiles also could come into a covenant relationship with Hashem.

MELO-HAGOYIM . (fullness of the Gentiles or nations). This phrase first appears in Genesis 48 as a blessing placed on the head of Ephraim at the time Jacob adopts him as his own son. It is repeated in Romans 11 when Paul informs us of a mystery or "sod" meaning a non-literal interpretation of a prophecy, that part of Israel (the Northern Kingdom historically and biblically) would be hardened until Hashem brings about the MELO-HAGOYIM. Interpreting Paul's words with the concept of the MELO HAGOYIM related to Ephraim millennium earlier, we see that Ephraim would be assimilated into the nations through a scattering but then in the last days regathered.

BECHOR (firstborn). The concept of the Return of the House of Joseph and the link to Shabbat observance and the return to Torah is realized when we consider Hashem's own BIKKURIM (firstfruits) is His offering of Ephraim to the nations to remedy the Bread of Shame for all of Israel's gifts of Shabbat, Torah and Eretz Yisrael. Therefore Ephraim in Jeremiah 31 is called Hashem's BECHORI (My Firstborn). NOTE: The Hebrew words for firstborn and firstfruit are spelled exactly the same but pronounced differently because of vowel pointings.

PESHA (willful intentional sin for which atonement was not possible through any sacrifice except on the Day of Atonement but which is remedied by the suffering servant of Isaiah 52-53)

ORTHODOX OBSERVANCE OF SHABBAT:

Erev Shabbat - Friday Evening

Kindling of the Shabbat Candles - 18 minutes before dusk.

Kabbalat Shabbat - Receiving the Shabbat as a bride. Begins with worship in the Psalms (95-99) and 29.

Lechah Dodi - A song welcoming the Sabbath Presence

Psalm 92-93 - Formal acceptance of the Sabbath joy and presence.

Mourner's Kaddish - Those who have lost a father, mother, husband, wife, son or daughter, brother or sister over the past 11 months lead the praises of Hashem, a special grace for the congregation in that praise is coming forth out of sorrow, which helps the grieving process.

Ma'ariv or Evening Service begins with the Ahavah (affirmation of our love of Hashem), followed by the Shema (our profession that Hashem is One God), the Affirmation of the Shema (through which we renew upon ourselves the yoke of Torah), the Veshameru (command to SHOMER or keep the Shabbat which is repeated again at the evening meal).

Half Kaddish - Each part of the worship service ends with a kaddish (sanctification of that part of the service through the sanctification of Hashem's name).

Shemonei Esrei (whispered almost inaudibly while standing and davening (the means of bending the knee and bowing in the Presence of the Creator). The Shemonei Esrei is a means to individually and privately praise, worship and pay homage to Hashem in a congregational setting for His faithfulness to the Patriarchs, His might, the Holiness of His Name, for the Holiness of the Day, for the Temple Service to come, for Thanksgiving and for Peace.

Seven-faceted blessing (Hashem is audibly and publicly praised as the shield of our forefathers, resuscitator of the dead, the holy God, the God who gives rest to His people, the God we serve, for His Name and as Master of Peace.

Full Kaddish (Another Kaddish sanctifies the seven-faceted blessing)

Psalm 23 (Hashem is recognized as the Shepherd who restores our souls) followed by another half-kaddish.

Aleynu (standing congregational praises of Hashem for His Creation, Kingship and Sovereignty)

Mourner's Kaddish (Mourners recite the final kaddish ending the service)

RETURN FROM SYNAGOGUE:

Erev Shabbat - Evening Meal

Blessing of the Children - priestly blessing and blessings of the House of Joseph

Shalom Aleychem - welcoming and thanking the angels at the change of the guard

Table prayer - acknowledging the sovereignty of Hashem in the home

Eshet Chayil - husband acknowledge the contributions of the “virtuous wife” in home and family

Kiddush - sanctification with wine on the evening

Netilat yadayim - Washing of hands before breaking bread

Ha-motze - the blessing of Hashem for His provision of bread

Zimrot - Shabbat songs

Shabbat Worship Service - Saturday Morning

Avodah - Service of the Temple believed to have been given by the Ruach Hakodesh to King David.

1) Psalms of Ascent - Purpose is to elevate the worshiper who is already worry free to the place he or she can ascend in praises to the Creator.

2) The Shema & its blessings - To affirm the unity of Hashem

3) Kaddish - To sanctify each step of ascent during the worship service. Includes a special grace to a congregation through the praises of mourners.

4) Shemonei Esrei -- The silent benedictions whispered to Hashem by each congregant in the highest elevation of worship.

5) The Torah reading service and the sanctification of the Holy Name.

6) The Haftorah reading service

7) Homily

Mussaf prayers - additional prayers

Havdalah Service - Saturday Evening when three stars are in the sky (to end Shabbat)

RENEWED TESTAMENT - The proper translation of Brit Hadashah often mistranslated New Testament. From the Hebrew verb Hadash which means to renew, restore or repair

GLOSSARY AND VOCABULARY HELPS

abba (Father)

ach (brother)

Acharet HaYamim (The end of days or Last Days)

acharit (last)

achim (brothers)

Adam (the first man)

Adamah (Earth)

adamah (ground)

adon (master or lord)

Aggadah or aggadot (stories with a moral or philosophical purpose)

ahavah (love, agape)

Akeidah (Abraham’s "sacrifice" -- really elevation offering -- of Isaac)

akrabim (scorpions)

aleph (first Hebrew letter of the alphabet)

aliyah (ascent)

almanah (widow)

almanot (widows)

almot (virgins)

'am (people)

Amidah (standing prayers recited silently in the synagogue also called the Sh'monei Esrei or 18 Benedictions)

ananim (clouds)

anashim (men)

avanirn (stones)

avdut (slavery, bondage)

Avinu (our Father)

Avodah (worship/service)

avodah zarah (idol worship)

avodat (work)

avodat kodesh (worship,

avodot hakodesh (ministries)

Avot (the Patriarchs, Fathers)

Avoteinu (our Fathers)

ayin (eye)

ayin hara (evil eye)

B.C.E. (before common era)

B’avon (in sin)

B’ereshith - In the Beginning

b’nei (sons)

b’rit (covenant)

B’rit Chadashah (Renewed Covenant or Testament)

b’seder (in order)

b’seter (in secret).

b’shem hazeh (in this name).

b’yirah (with fear)

ba’al (husband, master)

Ba’al Berith (L-rd of the Covenant)

ba’alirn (husbands)

Baal Bayit (master of the house)

Bamidbar (Book of Numbers)

banim (children)

Bar Mitzvah (Son of the Commandment; i.e. has reached the age of responsibility)

barad (hail)

barah (created, a verb used only with Hashem)

bamidbar (In the wilderness, the book of Numbers)

baruch (blessed is)

Baruch Habah (welcome)

basherte (his destined mate)

bat (daughter)

bat kol (a voice from heaven)

Bechor (Firstborn)

bechorah (inheritance)

Beit Hamikdash (The Temple lit. House of the Holy)

Beit haShoevah (House of the water-pouring)

beit hasohar (prison)

beit kevarot (cemetery)

Belt HaMidrash (House of Study)

ben (son)

ben Adam (human being)

Ben Torah (scholar)

ben yachid (only son)

beni (my son)

beni haahuv (beloved son)

bentsh (custom of saying grace after meals)

Beriah (Creation)

Bet Din (House of Judgment, a panel of at least three rabbis who make halachic rulings on a case by case basis and decide on conversions)

Bnei HaChuppah (wedding party lit. children of the chuppah)

bocher, bochur (bachelor)

boker (morning)

Boneh (Builder)

bracha (blessing)

b'rechot (blessings)

Briah (Creation)

Brit (Covenant)

brit milah (circumcision)

btishah (shame)

bubbemeises (old wives tales)

bukki (expert, meivin)

buttel (cancelled out)

B'yirah (with fear)

C.E. (common era)

chacham (wise man)

chachamim (wise ones)

chadashah (renewed)

chag (festival)

Chag HaMatzot (Feast of Unleavened Bread)

Chaggai (Haggai)

chalav (milk)

chalil (flute)

chamesh (five)

chamesh elafim (five thousand)

chametz (leavened bread)

chamor (donkey)

charedi (orthodox)

chattaim (sins)

chattat (sin offering, sin-atoning)

chavura’h (company, fellowship)

Chayim (Life or living)

Chayot (G-d’s highest form of Angelic beings)

Chayyah (Beast,

chayyah (living)

chayyot (beasts)

chazon (vision, revelation)

chazora (review)

Chazzan (leads prayer and sings Scripture in synagogue)

cheder (room)

cherem (ban of destruction)

          Chesed (Mercy, kindness. Difficult to translate into English but is associated with the overriding character trait in Abraham exemplified by his kindness to everyone regardless of how they treated him or what they said about him)

chet (sin)

Chislev (9th Jewish month of the year)

Choq, Choqim (decree(s) of Torah which are not easily understood but which demand unqualified obedience)

Chupah (wedding tent usually formed by four men holding up a tallit under which the bride and groom and officiating rabbi stand)

chutzpah (nerve)

Cohen haGadol (high priest)

Cohen, Cohenim (priest(s))

D’var, (Word)

D’varim (Words. Also Book of Deuteronomy)

D’vir (Inner Sanctuary of the Temple)

da’at (knowledge)

dag, dagim (fish)

Dai (Enough!)

dam (blood)

damut (likeness)

Dan’el (Daniel)

darshan (preacher)

darshanim (preachers)

dati (religious)

daven (pray)

davka (approximately)

Dayan (Judge of a Rabbinical Court)

dayanim (religious judges)

delet, delatot (door, doors)

derech (way, path or guide)

Derech Hashem (Way of the Lord)

deveykut (attachment to G-d specifically enhanced by assisting the work of Torah scholars)

din (court of judgment)

dor, dorot (generation, generations)

d'var nevuah (word of prophecy)

edut (testimony)

eish (fire)

Eish Gehinnom (Fire of Hell)

eishes chayil (virtuous woman. The praise an Orthodox man gives his wife on every Shabbat from Proverbs 31:10ff)

Elisheva (Wife of Zacharyah)

Eliyahu (Elijah the Prophet also known as the Gileadite (from East M'nashe)

Elul (6th Jewish month of the year)

Em or Ema (Mother)

emet (truth)

emunah (faith)

Eretz Mitzrayim (Land of Egypt)

Eretz Yisrael (Land of Israel)

erev (eve or evening)

Etanim (Jewish month of Tishrei)

Etrog (Biblical fruit of Israel that looks like a large lemon and is used as one of the four species in the observance of Succot (Tabernacles))

etz (the End)

frum (Yiddish: observant Jew)

gadol (great)

Galah (revelation)

Galut (Exile)

Gan (Garden)

Gan Eden (Garden of Eden)

geder (low wall or fence that sets apart holy boundaries)

Gemara (Commentary on Oral Law)

Ger Toshav (Gentile settler within Israel’s gates. By some, a “quasi-proselyte.”)

Ger Tzadiq (Righteous Gentile)

Gerizim (Mountain of Samaria)

geshem (rain)

get (divorce)

geulah (Redemption)

Geulah Sh'lemah (Final redemption)

gevurah (miraculous power or inner strength.  This was also the over-riding attribute of Yitzhak reflected by his inner strength to overcome the fires of temptation, linked in Yitzhak's case to the fact that he never left the land of Israel.)

Go’el (redeemer)

Goy, goyim (nation(s) or Gentile(s))

guer (stranger (usually a Gentile))

Ha-Bechor (The Firstborn)

Ha-Bikkurim (Shavuot or Pentecost, the Feast of Weeks)

Haftorah (Writings from the Tanach that are read along with the weekly Torah portion)

Hagar (Concubine of Abraham, who according to tradition, became his wife after the death of Sarah)

halacha (a legal ruling from the verb to walk. "How to walk in Torah")

halachic (of or pertatining to halacha)

halailah (midnight)

Halleluyah (Praise the L-rd)

Ha-mashiach (messiah, anointed one)

Ha-melech (The king)

Ha-Mikdash (The Temple)

Ha-motzi (blessing to Hashem recited before eating bread)

Ha-nasi (The prince, president or ruler other than a king)

Ha-navi (The prophet)

Ha-Satan (Satan)

Ha-Shabbat (The Sabbath)

havdalah (conclusion of the Sabbath service)

hayom (today)

hitbolelut (assimilation)

hitbonenut (meditation)

Iyar (2nd Jewish month of the year)

Iyov (Job)

kabbalah (“sod” or mystical level of Torah commentary)

kashrut (laws of Kosher eating)

Kefa (Peter)

keter (crown)

ketoret (incense)

ketubah (wedding contract)

ketuvim (writings in the Tanach that fall outside the Torah and the Prophets which include Psalms, Proverbs, Chronicles, etc.)

kiddushin (betrothal or first phase of marriage before consummation)

kittel (white robe)

klezmer (musician)

kodesh (holy)

Kohelet (Ecclesiastes. Also King Shlomo's name for "the Preacher")

kokhav, kokhavim (star, stars)

korban (offering dedicated to G-d)

koret (punishment of being "cut off" from the mercies of Hashem due to a specific type of sin. See Pesha)

l’olam (forever)

lashan hara (evil speech which includes anything said about a person without him or her being present which diminishes or judges the person in the eyes of another whether or not what is said is true)

lechem (bread)

Levi'im (Levites or family of priests)

Lulav (three of the four species of plants that categorize humanity and which is used in the celebration of Succot)

ma’aser (the tenth or tithe)

malach (angel or messenger)

malkah (queen)

matan, matanot (gift or gifts)

Mayim chayim (Living Water)

merkavot (chariots)

Midrash (In-depth lessons in story form which constitute the “Drash” or third level of rabbinic interpretation of Scripture)

mikveh (immersion pool, gathering of waters)

Milah (circumcision)

Minchah (afternoon prayers)

minhag (custom)

Mishkan (Tabernacle in the Wilderness)

Mishlei (Proverbs)

Mishnah (Codification of Oral Law)

mishpat (justice)

Mishpatim (the judgments within the Laws of Torah)

mishpochah (family)

mitzvah (commandment)

Mo’ed (appointed time or festival)

Moshe (Moses)

Mussaf (additional services for Sabbath and festivals)

netilat yadaim (blessing recited after washing the hands before breaking bread)

Nazir (one under the Nazarite vow)

n'zir, n'zirei (the one separated from his brothers, usually associated with the family of Machirites of Israelite East M'nashe.  Of these Machirites, the most separated are the Apache 5 Nations and the Navajo, who migrated further south to the Four Corners of the American Southwest.

Nevi’im (the Prophets)

Niddah (the holy - set apart - state of a woman during her menstrual cycle)

Nisan (1st month of the year)

Noach (Noah)

nokhri (foreigner)

N'ssuim (the consummation of the marriage)

parah (heifer)

Parah Adumah (Red Heifer)

payis (sidelocks of hair worn by religious Orthodox males which remind one of the corners of a field left unharvested for the poor, orphan and widow)

peh (mouth)

Pesach (Passover)

rachamim (mercy)

Ramah (figuratively used to represent the Heavenlies, where Rachel is weeping for her children from the World to Come)

remez (2nd level of scriptural interpretation that relies on hints and allusions through repetition of words or phrases in different places in Scripture. The context of an earlier mention may be assumed on the later mention)

rosh (head)

Rosh Chodesh (New or renewed month)

Rosh HaShanah (New year celebrated on 1 Tishrei)

ruach (wind, Spirit)

Ruach HaKodesh (Holy Spirit or Spirit of Hashem)

smichah (ordination)

Samael (the devil and according to tradition, the guardian angel of Esau-Edom with whom Ya'acov wrestled and overcame meriting the name, Israel)

Sanhedrin (70 members of Israel’s highest religious court)

seder (order or a book setting forth an order of service such as the Pesach Haggadah)

sefer (book but anciently a scroll)

sefer critut (a legally binding "scroll of cutting off" or divorce also known as a "get")

selicha (forgiveness)

selichot (supplications to Hashem during the 10 Days of Awe from Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kippur peititioning his judgment with mercy)

Sephardi (Jews of Spanish or Eastern European descent)

Sha’ul (Paul the Apostle)

Shabbat (Sabbath)

Shabbatot (plural Sabbaths)

shadkhan (marriage broker or matchmaker)

shaliach (one who is sent or an apostle)

shavu’ah (oath)

Shavuot (Festival of Pentecost)

shavuot (oaths)

Sh'chinah (Hashem's glory or radiance)

sheloshah (three)

Shema (Affirmation of faith in the "unity" of G-d being One and having dominion over all Creation -- from Deuteronomy 6:4 -- which is recited at least twice daily)

Shemeni Atzeret - 8th day of Succot

shemesh (sun)

Shemittah - Every seventh year in which Hashem commands that no fields be planted or harvested.

Shemoneh Esrei (18 benedictions which are recited silently while standing by every congregant in an Orthodox synagogue. It is also called the Amidah or Standing Prayer)

Shemot (Exodus)

shemot (names)

Sheol (abode of the dead)

sheva (seven)

shevet (tribe)

shevim (seventy)

sheyarim (oxen)

shiur, shiurim (lesson(s), Torah talk(s))

Shlomo (Solomon King of Israel)

Shmuel (Samuel)

Sh'nayim (two)

Shofar (a horn taken from a kosher animal -- except a cow -- which was blown in biblical times to "sound the alarm" of battle and was used ceremonially as it is today to signify each new moon, and call congregants to repent during the month of Elul preceding Rosh Hashanah. It is sounded 100 times in an Orthodox synagogue during Rosh Hashanah and the Yom Kippur service ends with one final extended blast)

Shofar haGadol (the great shofar)

shoftim (judges)

shomrim (guards)

Shomron (Samaria, the inheritance of the House of Joseph currently being sought by the Palestinians as the heart of their state).

shoresh (root)

shul (synagogue)

shulchan (table)

Shulchan ‘Aruch (15th century codification of the 613 Laws of Torah which comprise the major body of halacha or Torah Laws)

shulchanot (tables)

shuls (synagogues)

siddur (the prayer book used in the synagogue and in personal devotions)

siman (sign, indication especially related to mystical interpretations of the Torah)

simcha (joy)

Simchat Torah (Festival following the conclusion of Succot known as the "Rejoicing of the Torah" in which the Torah scrolls are removed from the arks where they are kept in synagogues and become dance partners for the rabbis and Torah devout. Simchat Torah also is the birth date of Y'shua, the manifest Torah as reckoned from the birth of Yohanan Ha-Machvil (John the Baptist) during the time of Passover.

Sivan (3rd Jewish month of the year)

sod (in secret)

Sofer, Soferim (Scribe, Scribes)

Succah (a booth erected to dwell outside during the Festival of Succot as a yearly remembrance of the habitation of the children of Israel in their wildnerness wanderings. Also called a manger.)

Succot (festival celebrated from the 15th of Tishrei to the 22nd of Tishrei in which celebrants dwell outside their homes in a succah)

Talmid, talmidim (student, students)

Talmud (An ancient compilation of the Oral Law, called the Mishnah together with the Gemara (the commentary on the Oral Law) which was held in common by both houses of Israel (Israel and Judah) but which Judah continued to develop independently after the exile of Israel (the Northern Kingdom) for some 8 centuries until it was codified and the commentary sealed in the late First Century)

Tameh (unclean in a ritual sense)

Tamid (one of the daily Temple offerings)

Tammuz (4th month of the year)

Tanakh (Genesis to Malachi)

tefilot (prayers)

tefillin (phylacteries or prayer boxes worn on the forehead and strapped to the arm during the morning prayers of Orthodox men on every day except the Shabbat and Festivals. Considered a "sign" of devotion to Hashem)

Tehillim (Psalms)

tehorah (ritually pure)

Tishrei (7th month of the Levitical calendar consigned to Israel, but believed to be the first month of the secular calendar which commemorates the Creation of Adam)

todah (thanks)

tohorah (purification)

Torah (the Five Books of Moshe generically refered to as "the teaching")

Torah Sh'be’al peh (Oral Law "Torah that is in and upon the mouth")

Torah Shebektav (Written Law "Torah that is Written")

Torot (Oral and Written Laws of Torah)

Tractate (a division of the Talmud)

t'shuvah (repentance)

tzaddik (righteous man who overcomes his evil inclination and lives to straddle two worlds to help others while alive in this world and after death in the World to Come)

tzafon (north or hidden)

tzedakah (charitable contribution believed to atone for sin)

tzedek (righteousness)

tzelem (image related to light or its reflection)

Tzion (Zion)

Tzitzit ("fringe” on a four-cornered garment)

Tzitziyot (“fringes” A reminder of Hashem's commandments)

Ushpizin (Exalted guests welcomed to the Succah)

Vayikrah (Leviticus, literally "And He Called")

Y’hoshua (Joshua)

Y’hudah (Judah)

Y’hudah Ish Kiryot (Judas lscariot or a man of the city of Yot)

Y’rushalayim (Jerusalem)

Y’shua (Jesus)

Ya’acov (James)

Yechezch’el (Ezekiel)

Yehudi, Yehudim (Jew, Jews)

yeled (child)

Yeshayahu (Isaiah)

yesod (foundation)

yetzer hara (evil inclination)

yetzer tov (good inclination)

yirah (fear)

yireh (see)

Yirmeyahu (Jeremiah)

Yisrael (Israel)

Yitzhak (Isaac)

Yochanan (John)

yom (day)

Yom Bikkurim (first day of the counting of the Omer)

Yom Kippur (Great Day of Atonement)

Yonah (Jonah)

Yosef, Yoseif (Joseph)

Y'shai (Jesse)

Z’kharyah (Zachariah)

zahav (gold)

zemirot (table songs)

zera (seed)

Zevulun (Zebulon)